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Avian influenza prevention and control knowledge
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Avian influenza viruses can be divided into three categories: high pathogenicity, low pathogenicity, and non-pathogenicity.H7亚毒株(以H5N1H5N6H7N9为代表)引起的疾病。 Among them, highly pathogenic avian influenza is a disease caused by H5 and H7 substrains (represented by H5N1 , H5N6, and H7N9 ). 类动物疫病,我国将其列为一类动物疫病。 Highly pathogenic avian influenza has been classified as a Class A animal epidemic by the World Organisation for Animal Health because of its rapid spread, great harm, and high mortality in birds. 禽流感是由H7N9禽流感病毒引起的人类急性呼吸道传染病。 Human infection with H7N9 avian influenza is a human acute respiratory infection caused by the H7N9 avian influenza virus.

(A) the main symptoms

      流感样症状:发热(可高达39 40 ℃)、咳嗽、喉咙痛、肌肉痛、鼻塞、流涕等全身症状; 1. Flu-like symptoms: fever (up to 39 40 ℃), cough, sore throat, muscle pain, stuffy nose, runny nose and other systemic symptoms;

      眼部感染:结膜炎; 2. Eye infection: conjunctivitis;

      呼吸道感染:肺炎、呼吸衰竭、多器官衰竭或死亡。 3. Respiratory infections: pneumonia, respiratory failure, multiple organ failure or death.

(B) the way of infection

The main source of infection is birds carrying avian influenza virus and its secretions or excreta.

So there are the following ways of infection:

近距离接触染病的禽鸟(活鸟或死鸟) 1. Close contact with infected birds (live or dead)

      密切接触染病禽类的分泌物、排泄物 2. Close contact with the secretions and excreta of infected birds

      直接接触禽流感病毒 3. Direct contact with avian influenza virus

(Three) high-risk groups

与活禽有近距离接触的人士,如从事禽类养殖、销售、宰杀或加工业者。 1. People who have close contact with live poultry, such as those engaged in poultry breeding, sales, slaughter or processing.

老人、儿童及长期病患者,一旦感染,容易出现并发症,如支气管炎、肺炎等。 2. The elderly, children and patients with chronic diseases, once infected, are prone to complications, such as bronchitis and pneumonia.

(Four) poultry handling

食用和购买正规屠宰厂家的产品,切勿食用病死的鸡、鸭、鹅等禽类; 1. Eat and buy products from regular slaughtering manufacturers, never eat sick chickens, ducks, geese and other birds;

尽量避免接触活禽(或死禽)及其分泌物和排泄物; 2. Try to avoid contact with live birds (or dead birds) and their secretions and excreta;

应彻底煮熟禽类及其蛋类,如家禽在烹煮后仍有粉红色肉汁流出,或骨髓仍呈鲜红色,应重新烹煮至完全熟透。 3. The poultry and its eggs should be thoroughly cooked. If the poultry still has pink gravy flowing out after cooking, or the bone marrow is still bright red, it should be cooked again completely.

(V) Personal hygiene

保持双手清洁。 1. Keep hands clean. Especially before handling food, before eating, or before touching the mouth, nose, or eyes, before handling food, after using the toilet; after touching public objects, such as elevator handrails, elevator buttons, or door handles; or when hands are contaminated with respiratory secretions Time, such as after coughing or sneezing;

咳嗽或打喷嚏时,把用过的纸巾弃置到有盖垃圾桶,然后彻底清洁双手; 2. When coughing or sneezing, discard the used paper towels into a covered trash can, and then clean your hands thoroughly;

倘若有发热或呼吸道感染病症,应及时前往医疗机构就诊,与其密切接触者,均应戴上口罩; 3. If you have fever or respiratory infections, you should go to a medical institution for treatment in time, and those who are in close contact with them should wear masks;

如出现流感样病症,应留在家中休息,避免前往人群密集或空气不流通的场所; 4. In case of flu-like illness, stay at home and avoid going to crowded or airless places;

增强个人抵抗力,要注意均衡饮食、适量运动、充足休息和舒缓精神压力。 5. To enhance personal resistance, pay attention to a balanced diet, moderate exercise, adequate rest and relief of mental stress.

(VI) Environmental hygiene

  稀释家用漂白水来清洁家居。 If there is a suspected bird flu virus in the home, keep the indoor air flowing and clean. You must thoroughly clean your home once a week. You can use 1:99 diluted household bleach to clean your home. ℃下一分钟即可灭活,对干燥、紫外线照射及常用消毒液都非常敏感。 Avian influenza virus is not heat-resistant, can be inactivated at 100 ° C in one minute, and is very sensitive to dryness, ultraviolet radiation and commonly used disinfectants.

七)防治人感染高致病性禽流感关键要做到 四早 ( 7) The key to preventing and controlling human infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza is " four early "

Refers to early detection, early reporting, early isolation, and early treatment of the disease:

早发现:当自己或周围人出现发烧、咳嗽、呼吸急促、全身疼痛等症状时,应立即去医院就医。 1. Early detection: When you or someone around you has fever, cough, shortness of breath, general body pain and other symptoms, you should go to the hospital immediately. Remember to tell your doctor if you have a history of poultry exposure.

早报告:发现人感染高致病性禽流感病例或类似病例,及时报告当地医疗机构和疾病预防控制机构。 2. Early report: find cases of human infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza or similar cases, and report to local medical institutions and disease prevention and control institutions in a timely manner.

早隔离:对人感染高致病性禽流感病例和疑似病例要及时隔离,对密切接触者要按照情况进行医学观察,以防止疫情扩散。 3. Early quarantine: Human infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza and suspected cases should be quarantined in time, and close contacts should be medically observed according to the situation to prevent the spread of the epidemic.

早治疗:确诊为人感染高致病性禽流感的患者,应积极开展救治,特别是对有其他慢性疾病的人要及早治疗,经过抗病毒药物治疗以及使用支持疗法和对症疗法,绝大部分病人可以康复出院。 4. Early treatment: Patients diagnosed with highly pathogenic avian influenza should be actively treated, especially for those with other chronic diseases, and treated early with antiviral drugs and the use of supportive and symptomatic treatment. Some patients can be recovered and discharged.

(8) Key points for preventing bird flu in humans

食用家禽时要彻底煮熟,其中心部分须在70 ℃持续烹煮至少两分钟。 1. The poultry should be cooked thoroughly. The central part of the poultry must be cooked at 70 ℃ for at least two minutes.

处理活鸡、冷藏和解冻生鸡或鸡蛋后,要用肥皂或清洁液彻底洗净双手。 2. After handling live chickens, refrigerating and thawing raw chickens or eggs, wash your hands thoroughly with soap or cleaning solution.

避免接触鸡只及其粪便,勿用口吹鸡只尾部。 3. Avoid contact with chickens and their droppings. Do not blow the tails of chickens with your mouth.

要避免食用生鸡蛋,煮蛋须待其蛋黄及蛋白都变得坚实方可食用。 4. To avoid eating raw eggs, boil the eggs until their yolks and egg whites are firm before serving.

打流感疫苗,以减少同时感染流感和禽流感。 5. Get a flu vaccine to reduce simultaneous infection with flu and bird flu.

平时加强体育锻炼,多休息,避免过度劳累。 6. Usually strengthen physical exercise, take more rest and avoid overwork.

保持室内空气流通,清洁。 7. Keep indoor air circulation and clean.


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